Yeah, I needed an image for this article, so I create this epic Typescript moment.
Yeah, I needed an image for this article, so I create this epic Typescript moment.

Note: this article is not an introduction for Typescript beginners. I’m considering you’re here with a bit of Typescript experience and you need to go further in Typescript world. If you never used Typescript, please take a look at lease to this tutorial and take the time to manipulate some Typescript code.

Dynamically type a function

You need to create a function which can have different returns types according to its parameters.

Code

const f = <T>(param1: T): T => { return param1; }

Usage

const createStore = <T> (mainReducer: Reducer<T>): Store<T> => {}
const someStore = createStore(someTypedReducer);

Explanation

This feature works like the infer syntax. We describe a generic type T which will be determined by the Typescript compiler each time you will use the function f. You can use this type to create a complex return type like in Usage.

This is a very powerful feature which allows the creation of complex auto-inferred types.

You can take a look in Typescript 2.4 notes to see some other examples.

Non Nullable type

You need to forbid a variable to be null (or undefined).

Code

type NonNullable<T> = T extends null | undefined ? never : T;

Important note: NonNullable is available in global Typescript context

Usage

NonNullable<string | null> // string

Explanation

We need to use a Typescript 2.8 trick with a distributive conditional type.

If we take T = string | undefined, we reduce the code with this:

NonNullable<string|undefined> = (string extends undefined | null ? never : T) | (undefined extends undefined | null ? never : T);

So we check each type of T and if one of these types is null or undefined, it will be replaced by never which is the Typescript way to remove a type.

You can also define a Diff type to remove any type from T:

type Diff<T, U> = T extends U ? never : T;

Return Type of a function

Code

type ReturnType<T> = T extends (args: any[]) => infer R ? R : any;

Important note: ReturnType is available in global Typescript context.

Usage

const f = () => 2;
ReturnType<typeof f> // number

Explanation

Another Typescript 2.8 use here.

infer keyword tells to the compiler to get the type of a variable. We check if T is a function and telling to the compiler to associate a type R to the type of the return. So we just have to return the type R if T is a function.

Instance Type of a class

Code

type InstanceType<T extends new (args: any[]) => any> = T extends new (args: any[]) => infer R ? R : any;

Important note: InstanceType is available in global Typescript context.

Usage

class C { constructor() {} }
InstanceType<typeof C> // C

Explanation

Always Typescript 2.8 use here.

This is the same trick as ReturnType. We just need to check if the object T extends the function new (which is the needed function to create a class in JS). If new exists, we just get the return type of the new function.

Set all properties of an object as optional

Code

type Partial<T> = { [P in keyof T]?: T[P] };

Important note: Partial is available in global Typescript context.

Usage

Partial<{ value: number}> // {value?: number}

Explanation

We dive in Typescript 2.1 here.

The syntax used here is the mapped typed syntax. We iterate on each key of T (stored each time in the type variable P) and for each key P, we create a new optional property with its value T[P].

It seems complicated at the beginning, but it’s just nothing more than an iteration on all keys of the object T.

Get the type of a function parameter

Code

type FirstParameter<T> = T extends (arg1: infer U, args: Array<any>) => any ? U : undefined;
type SecondParameter<T> = T extends (arg1: any, arg2: infer U, args: Array<any>) => any ? U : undefined;

Usage

const f = (someArg: number, otherArg: string) => true;
FirstParameter<typeof f> // number
SecondParameter<typeof f> // string

Explanation

Some custom use of Typescript 2.8.

infer syntax can be used for anything in typing. Here, we just tell to Typescript to create a type U from getting the type of a specific argument when T is a function with enough parameters.

Make a union with all values of an array/object

You have an array, and you want to create a single union type with all values of an array or an object.

Code

type Union<T> = T[keyof T];

Usage

Union<{value: number; otherValue: string}> // number | string

Explanation

This one looks so ridiculous, but I figure out how to do that after a long time. It’s a custom use of the mapped types and lookup types of Typescript 2.1.

We iterate on all keys of T on T itself. The lookup type (keyof T) gets all keys of T and create a union with all these keys. Accessing to T with a union of keys result by creating a union of values types.

With these simple tricks, you can now achieve a lot of works in Typescript world.

Don’t hesitate to comment if you have some questions about them. I’m available on this post comments or on my Twitter.

Thanks for reading! :)

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